Richard Blumenthal Committee Assignments Wiki

Seniority in the United States Senate is valuable as it confers a number of benefits and is based on length of continuous service, with ties broken by a series of factors. Customarily, the terms "senior senator" and "junior senator" are used to distinguish the two senators representing a particular state.

Benefits of seniority[edit]

The United States Constitution does not mandate differences in rights or power, but Senate rules give more power to senators with more seniority. Generally, senior senators will have more power, especially within their own caucuses. In addition, by custom, senior senators from the president's party control federal patronage appointments in their states.

The president pro tempore of the Senate is traditionally the most senior member of the majority party.

There are several benefits, including the following:

  • Senators are given preferential treatment in choosing committee assignments based on seniority. Seniority on a committee is based on length of time serving on that committee, which means a senator may rank above another in committee seniority but be more junior in the full Senate. Although the committee chairmanship is an elected position, it is traditionally given to the most senior senator of the majority party serving on the committee, and not already holding a conflicting position such as chairmanship of another committee. The ranking member of a committee (called the vice-chairman in some select committees) is elected in the same way.
  • Greater seniority enables a senator to choose a desk closer to the front of the Senate Chamber.
  • Senators with higher seniority may choose to move into better office space as those offices are vacated.
  • Seniority determines the ranking in the United States order of precedence although other factors, such as being a former President or First Spouse, can place an individual higher in the order of precedence.

Determining the beginning of a term[edit]

The beginning of an appointment does not necessarily coincide with the date the Senate convenes or when the new Senator is sworn in. In the case of Senators first elected in a general election for the upcoming Congress, their terms begin on the first day of the new Congress. Since 1935, that means January 3 of odd-numbered years. The seniority date for an appointed senator is usually the date of the appointment, although the actual term does not begin until they take the oath of office. An incoming Senator who holds another office, including membership in the U.S. House of Representatives, must resign from that office before becoming a Senator.

Determining length of seniority[edit]

A senator's seniority is primarily determined by length of continuous service; for example, a senator who has served for 12 years is more senior than one who has served for 10 years. Because several new senators usually join at the beginning of a new Congress, seniority is determined by prior federal or state government service and, if necessary, the amount of time spent in the tiebreaking office. These tiebreakers in order are:[1]

  1. Former Senator
  2. Former Vice President
  3. Former House member
  4. Former Cabinet secretary
  5. Former state Governor
  6. Population of state based on the most recent census when the senator took office
  7. Alphabetical by last name (in case two senators came from the same state on the same day and have identical credentials)

When more than one senator has served in the same previous role, length of time in that prior office is used to break the tie. For instance, Ben Cardin, Bernie Sanders, Sherrod Brown, Bob Casey, Bob Corker, Claire McCaskill, Amy Klobuchar, Sheldon Whitehouse and Jon Tester took office on January 3, 2007, and the first three senators mentioned had previously served in the House of Representatives. Cardin, having served 20 years, is more senior than Sanders, who served 16 years, who in turn is more senior than Brown who served 14 years. Casey is more senior than Corker because as of the 2000 census, Pennsylvania's population outranks that of Tennessee's; McCaskill is more senior than Klobuchar because Missouri's population outranked that of Minnesota, and Klobuchar is more senior than Whitehouse because Minnesota's population outranked Rhode Island's population; meanwhile, Tester's home state of Montana had the least population among the freshmen class of 2006, so he was ranked 100 in seniority when the 110th Congress convened.

Current seniority list[edit]

Only relevant factors are listed below. For senators whose seniority is based on their state's respective population, the state population ranking is given as determined by the relevant United States Census current at the time they first took their seat.[2][3][4][5]

   RepublicanR(51)      DemocraticD(47)      IndependentI(2)

Seniority dateFirst tie-breakerSecond tie-breakerCommittee and leadership positions
11692Leahy, PatrickPatrick Leahy
D – Vermont
January 3, 1975Ranking Member: Appropriations
President pro tempore emeritus
21708Hatch, OrrinOrrin Hatch
R – Utah
January 3, 1977President pro tempore
Chair: Finance
31719Cochran, ThadThad Cochran
R – Mississippi
December 27, 1978[n 1]Chair: Appropriations
41745Grassley, ChuckChuck Grassley
R – Iowa
January 3, 1981Chair: Judiciary
51766McConnell, MitchMitch McConnell
R – Kentucky
January 3, 1985Majority Leader
61775Shelby, RichardRichard Shelby
R[n 2] – Alabama
January 3, 1987Former Representative (8 years)Chair: Rules
71777McCain, JohnJohn McCain
R – Arizona
Former Representative (4 years)Chair: Armed Services
81801Feinstein, DianneDianne Feinstein
D – California
November 4, 1992Ranking Member: Judiciary
91810Murray, PattyPatty Murray
D – Washington
January 3, 1993Ranking Member: HELP
Assistant Minority Leader
101816Inhofe, JimJim Inhofe
R – Oklahoma
November 16, 1994 
111827Wyden, RonRon Wyden
D – Oregon
February 6, 1996Ranking Member: Finance
121830Roberts, PatPat Roberts
R – Kansas
January 3, 1997Former Representative (16 years)Chair: Agriculture
131831Durbin, DickDick Durbin
D – Illinois
Former Representative (14 years)Minority Whip
141835Reed, JackJack Reed
D – Rhode Island
Former Representative (6 years)Ranking Member: Armed Services
151842Collins, SusanSusan Collins
R – Maine
Maine 38th in population (1990)Chair: Aging
161843Enzi, MikeMike Enzi
R – Wyoming
Wyoming 50th in population (1990)Chair: Budget
171844Schumer, ChuckChuck Schumer
D – New York
January 3, 1999Former Representative (18 years)Minority Leader
181846Crapo, MikeMike Crapo
R – Idaho
Former Representative (6 years)Chair: Banking
191854Nelson, BillBill Nelson
D – Florida
January 3, 2001Former Representative (12 years)Ranking Member: Commerce
201855Carper, TomTom Carper
D – Delaware
Former Representative (10 years)Ranking Member: Environment
211856Stabenow, DebbieDebbie Stabenow
D – Michigan
Former Representative (4 years)Ranking Member: Agriculture
Democratic Policy Committee Chair
221859Cantwell, MariaMaria Cantwell[n 3]
D – Washington
Former Representative (2 years)Ranking Member: Energy
231867Murkowski, LisaLisa Murkowski
R – Alaska
December 20, 2002[n 1] Chair: Energy
241869Graham, LindseyLindsey Graham
R – South Carolina
January 3, 2003Former Representative 
251871Alexander, LamarLamar Alexander
R – Tennessee
Former Cabinet memberChair: HELP
261873Cornyn, JohnJohn Cornyn[n 4]
R – Texas
Majority Whip
271876Burr, RichardRichard Burr
R – North Carolina
January 3, 2005Former Representative (10 years)Chair: Intelligence
281879Thune, JohnJohn Thune
R – South Dakota
Former Representative (6 years)Chair: Commerce
Republican Conference Chair
291880Isakson, JohnnyJohnny Isakson
R – Georgia
Former Representative (5 yrs., 10 mos.)Chair: Veterans' Affairs
Chair: Ethics
301885Menendez, BobBob Menendez
D – New Jersey
January 17, 2006[n 1] Ranking Member: Foreign Relations
311886Cardin, BenBen Cardin
D – Maryland
January 3, 2007Former Representative (20 years)Ranking Member: Small Business
321887Sanders, BernieBernie Sanders
I[n 5] – Vermont
Former Representative (16 years)Ranking Member: Budget
331888Brown, SherrodSherrod Brown
D – Ohio
Former Representative (14 years)Ranking Member: Banking
341890Casey Jr., BobBob Casey Jr.
D – Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania 6th in population (2000)Ranking Member: Aging
351891Corker, BobBob Corker
R – Tennessee
Tennessee 16th in population (2000)Chair: Foreign Relations
361892McCaskill, ClaireClaire McCaskill
D – Missouri
Missouri 17th in population (2000)Ranking Member: Homeland Security
371893Klobuchar, AmyAmy Klobuchar
D – Minnesota
Minnesota 21st in population (2000)Ranking Member: Rules
381894Whitehouse, SheldonSheldon Whitehouse
D – Rhode Island
Rhode Island 43rd in population (2000)
391895Tester, JonJon Tester
D – Montana
Montana 44th in population (2000)Ranking Member: Veterans' Affairs
401896Barrasso, JohnJohn Barrasso
R – Wyoming
June 22, 2007[n 1]Chair: Environment
Republican Policy Committee Chair
411897Wicker, RogerRoger Wicker
R – Mississippi
December 31, 2007[n 1]
421899Udall, TomTom Udall
D – New Mexico
January 3, 2009Former RepresentativeVice Chair: Indian Affairs
431901Shaheen, JeanneJeanne Shaheen
D – New Hampshire
Former Governor (6 years)
441902Warner, MarkMark Warner
D – Virginia
Former Governor (4 years)Vice Chair: Intelligence
Democratic Caucus Vice Chair
451903Risch, JimJim Risch
R – Idaho
Former Governor (7 months)Chair: Small Business
461905Merkley, JeffJeff Merkley
D – Oregon
471909Bennet, MichaelMichael Bennet
D – Colorado
January 21, 2009[n 1]
481910Gillibrand, KirstenKirsten Gillibrand
D – New York
January 26, 2009[n 1]
491916Manchin, JoeJoe Manchin
D – West Virginia
November 15, 2010Former Governor
501917Coons, ChrisChris Coons
D – Delaware
Vice Chair: Ethics
511919Blunt, RoyRoy Blunt
R – Missouri
January 3, 2011Former Representative (14 years)Missouri 17th in population (2000)Republican Conference Vice Chair
521920Moran, JerryJerry Moran
R – Kansas
Kansas 33rd in population (2000)
531921Portman, RobRob Portman
R – Ohio
Former Representative (12 years)
541922Boozman, JohnJohn Boozman
R – Arkansas
Former Representative (10 years)
551923Toomey, PatPat Toomey
R – Pennsylvania
Former Representative (6 years)
561924Hoeven, JohnJohn Hoeven
R – North Dakota
Former GovernorChair: Indian Affairs
571925Rubio, MarcoMarco Rubio
R – Florida
Florida 4th in population (2000)
581926Johnson, RonRon Johnson
R – Wisconsin
Wisconsin 20th in population (2000)Chair: Homeland Security
591927Paul, RandRand Paul
R – Kentucky
Kentucky 25th in population (2000)
601928Blumenthal, RichardRichard Blumenthal
D – Connecticut
Connecticut 29th in population (2000)
611929Lee, MikeMike Lee
R – Utah
Utah 34th in population (2000)
621931Heller, DeanDean Heller
R – Nevada
May 9, 2011[n 1]
631932Schatz, BrianBrian Schatz
D – Hawaii
December 26, 2012[n 1]
641933Scott, TimTim Scott
R – South Carolina
January 2, 2013[n 1]
651934Baldwin, TammyTammy Baldwin
D – Wisconsin
January 3, 2013Former Representative (14 years)Democratic Caucus Secretary
661935Flake, JeffJeff Flake
R – Arizona
Former Representative (12 years)
671936Donnelly, JoeJoe Donnelly
D – Indiana
Former Representative (6 years)Indiana 15th in population (2010)
681937Murphy, ChrisChris Murphy
D – Connecticut
Connecticut 29th in population (2010)
691938Hirono, MazieMazie Hirono
D – Hawaii
Hawaii 40th in population (2010)
701939Heinrich, MartinMartin Heinrich
D – New Mexico
Former Representative (4 years) 
711940King, AngusAngus King
I – Maine
Former Governor (8 years)
721941Kaine, TimTim Kaine
D – Virginia
Former Governor (4 years)
731942Cruz, TedTed Cruz
R – Texas
Texas 2nd in population (2010)
741943Warren, ElizabethElizabeth Warren
D – Massachusetts
Massachusetts 14th in population (2010)Democratic Caucus Vice Chair
751944Fischer, DebDeb Fischer
R – Nebraska
Nebraska 38th in population (2010)
761945Heitkamp, HeidiHeidi Heitkamp
D – North Dakota
North Dakota 48th in population (2010)
771948Markey, EdEd Markey
D – Massachusetts
July 16, 2013
781949Booker, CoryCory Booker
D – New Jersey
October 31, 2013
791951Capito, Shelley MooreShelley Moore Capito
R – West Virginia
January 3, 2015Former Representative (14 years)
801952Peters, GaryGary Peters
D – Michigan
Former Representative (6 years)Michigan 8th in population (2010)
811953Cassidy, BillBill Cassidy[n 6]
R – Louisiana
Louisiana 25th in population (2010)
821954Gardner, CoryCory Gardner
R – Colorado
Former Representative (4 years)Colorado 22nd in population (2010)NRSC Chair
831955Lankford, JamesJames Lankford
R – Oklahoma
Oklahoma 28th in population (2010)
841956Cotton, TomTom Cotton
R – Arkansas
Former Representative (2 years)Arkansas 32nd in population (2010)
851957Daines, SteveSteve Daines
R – Montana
Montana 44th in population (2010)
861958Rounds, MikeMike Rounds
R – South Dakota
Former Governor
871959Perdue, DavidDavid Perdue
R – Georgia
Georgia 9th in population (2010)
881960Tillis, ThomThom Tillis
R – North Carolina
North Carolina 10th in population (2010)
891961Ernst, JoniJoni Ernst
R – Iowa
Iowa 30th in population (2010)
901962Sasse, BenBen Sasse
R – Nebraska
Nebraska 38th in population (2010)
911963Sullivan, DanDan Sullivan
R – Alaska
Alaska 47th in population (2010)
921964Van Hollen, ChrisChris Van Hollen
D – Maryland
January 3, 2017Former Representative (14 years)DSCC Chair
931965Young, ToddTodd Young
R – Indiana
Former Representative (6 years)
941966Duckworth, TammyTammy Duckworth
D – Illinois
Former Representative (4 years)
951967Hassan, MaggieMaggie Hassan
D – New Hampshire
Former Governor
961968Harris, KamalaKamala Harris
D – California
California 1st in population (2010)
971969Kennedy, John NeelyJohn Neely Kennedy
R – Louisiana
Louisiana 25th in population (2010)
981970Cortez Masto, CatherineCatherine Cortez Masto
D – Nevada
Nevada 35th in population (2010)
991972Smith, TinaTina Smith
D – Minnesota
January 3, 2018Minnesota 21st in population (2010)
1001973Jones, DougDoug Jones
D – Alabama
Alabama 23rd in population (2010)
Seniority dateFirst tie-breakerSecond tie-breakerCommittee and leadership positions

See also[edit]



  1. ^ abcdefghijThe seniority date for an appointed senator is the date of the appointment, not necessarily the date of taking the oath of office. See Determining the beginning of a term, above.
  2. ^Richard Shelby's 1994 party change did not break his service or seniority.
  3. ^Maria Cantwell (#22) is the Senate's most senior junior senator.
  4. ^John Cornyn's predecessor, Phil Gramm, resigned early, effective November 30, 2002, so that Senator-elect Cornyn could take office early, and move into Gramm's office suite in order to begin organizing his staff. Cornyn did not, however, gain seniority, owing to a 1980 Rules Committee policy that no longer gave seniority to senators who entered Congress early for the purpose of gaining advantageous office space.
  5. ^Although Sanders was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President in 2016, and has voted with the Democratic Party for organizational purposes throughout his time in Congress, he has never been a Democratic Senator.
  6. ^Bill Cassidy (#81) is the Senate's most junior senior senator.
Standing committee

United States Senate
115th Congress
FormedDecember 10, 1816
ChairChuck Grassley (R)
Since January 3, 2015
Ranking memberDianne Feinstein (D)
Since January 3, 2017
Seats21 members
Political partiesMajority (11)
Policy areasFederal judiciary, civil procedure, criminal procedure, civil liberties, copyrights, patents, trademarks, naturalization, constitutional amendments, congressional apportionment, state and territorial boundary lines
Oversight authorityDepartment of Justice, Department of Homeland Security, federal judicial nominations
House counterpartHouse Committee on the Judiciary
Meeting place
226 Dirksen Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C.

The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of 20 U.S. Senators whose role is to oversee of the Department of Justice (DOJ), consider executive nominations, and review pending legislation.[1][2]

The Judiciary Committee's oversight of the DOJ includes all of the agencies under the DOJ's jurisdiction, such as the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The Committee considers presidential nominations for positions in the DOJ, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the State Justice Institute, and certain positions in the Department of Commerce and DHS. It is also in charge of holding hearings and investigating judicial nominations to the Supreme Court, the U.S. court of appeals, the U.S. district courts, and the Court of International Trade.[1] The Standing Rules of the Senate confer jurisdiction to the Senate Judiciary Committee in certain areas, such as considering proposed constitutional amendments and legislation related to federal criminal law, human rights law, immigration, intellectual property, antitrust law, and internet privacy.[1][3]


Established in 1816 as one of the original standing committees in the United States Senate, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary is one of the oldest and most influential committees in Congress. Its broad legislative jurisdiction has assured its primary role as a forum for the public discussion of social and constitutional issues. The Committee is also responsible for oversight of key activities of the executive branch, and is responsible for the initial stages of the confirmation process of all judicial nominations for the federal judiciary.[4]

Members, 115th Congress[edit]

  • Chuck Grassley, Iowa, Chairman
  • Orrin Hatch, Utah
  • Lindsey Graham, South Carolina
  • John Cornyn, Texas
  • Mike Lee, Utah
  • Ted Cruz, Texas
  • Ben Sasse, Nebraska
  • Jeff Flake, Arizona
  • Mike Crapo, Idaho
  • Thom Tillis, North Carolina
  • John Neely Kennedy, Louisiana
  • Dianne Feinstein, California, Ranking Member
  • Patrick Leahy, Vermont
  • Dick Durbin, Illinois
  • Sheldon Whitehouse, Rhode Island
  • Amy Klobuchar, Minnesota
  • Chris Coons, Delaware
  • Richard Blumenthal, Connecticut
  • Mazie Hirono, Hawaii
  • Kamala Harris, California (from January 9, 2018)
  • Cory Booker, New Jersey (from January 9, 2018)
  • Al Franken, Minnesota (until January 2, 2018)

In January 2018, the Democratic minority had their number of seats increase from 9 to 10 upon the election of Doug Jones (D-AL), changing the 52–48 Republican majority to 51–49.

Historical membership[edit]

Members, 114th Congress[edit]

  • Chuck Grassley, Iowa, Chairman
  • Orrin Hatch, Utah
  • Jeff Sessions, Alabama
  • Lindsey Graham, South Carolina
  • John Cornyn, Texas
  • Mike Lee, Utah
  • Ted Cruz, Texas
  • Jeff Flake, Arizona
  • David Vitter, Louisiana
  • David Perdue, Georgia
  • Thom Tillis, North Carolina
  • Patrick Leahy, Vermont, Ranking Member
  • Dianne Feinstein, California
  • Chuck Schumer, New York
  • Dick Durbin, Illinois
  • Sheldon Whitehouse, Rhode Island
  • Amy Klobuchar, Minnesota
  • Al Franken, Minnesota
  • Chris Coons, Delaware
  • Richard Blumenthal, Connecticut

Source: 2013 Congressional Record, Vol. 159, Page S296 to 297

Current subcommittees[edit]

Chair since 1816[edit]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Republican Senator from Iowa, Chuck Grassley, has been Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee from 2015-present.

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