Teenage Pregnancy Research Paper Titles For Child

1. Gyesaw NYK, Ankomah A. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study. Int J Women’s Health. 2013;5:773–80.[PMC free article][PubMed]

2. Pungbangkadee R, Parisunyakul S, Kantaruksa K. Experiences of early motherhood among Thai adolescents: perceiving conflict between needs as a mother and an adolescent. Thai Journal of Research January-March, 2008;12(1):70–82

3. Abu Duhou J. Reproduction, childbearing and motherhood: a cross-cultural perspective. New York: Nova; 2007. Motherhood as a script for nationhood; pp. 211–20.

4. Afable-Munsuz A, Speizer I, Magnus JH, Kendal, C. A Positive Orientation Towards Early Motherhood is Associated with Unintended Pregnancy Among New Orleans Youth. Maternal and Childhealth Journal. 2006;10(3)265–76. [PubMed]

5. Belton S. Burmese women and unwanted pregnancy:’I thought my blood was stuck inside me’ In: Liamputtong P, editor. Reproduction, childbearing and motherhood: a cross-cultural perspective. New York: Nova; 2007. pp. 47–62.

6. Liamputtong P. Motherhood and “moral career”: discourses of good motherhood among Southeast Asian immigrant women in Australia. Qual Sociol. 2006;29(1):25–53. doi: 10.1007/s11133-005-9006-5.[Cross Ref]

7. Australian Bureau of Statistics . Births Australia, 2013. Canberra: ABS; 2013.

8. Australian Bureau of Statistics . Births, Australia, 2011. Canberra: ABS; 2011.

9. Moloney M, Hunt PG, Joe-Laidler K, Mackenzie K. Young mother (in the) hood: gang girls’ negotiation of new identities. Journal of Youth Studies. 2011;14(1):1–19. [PMC free article][PubMed]

10. World Health Organization . Early marriages, adolescent and young pregnancies. Geneva: WHO; 2012. pp. 1–4.

11. Higginbottom GMA. Young people of minority ethnic origin in England and early parenthood: views from young parents and service providers. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63(4):858–70. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.03.011.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

12. McMichael C. Unplanned but not unwanted? Teen pregnancy and parenthood among young people with refugee backgrounds. J Youth Stud. 2013;16(5):663–78. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2012.744813.[Cross Ref]

13. Ngum Chi CM. Contraception, teenage pregnancy, culture and motherhood among African Australian teenagers with a refugee background in Greater Melbourne, Australia. (Unpublished dotoral disseration) Bundoora Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: La Trobe University; 2012.

14. Benza S, Liamputtong P. Migrant motherhood and challenges: The lived experiences of Zimbawean women living in Melbourne. Paper submitted to Midwifery, 2015.

15. Carolan M. Antenatal care perceptions of pregnant African women attending maternity services in Melbourne, Australia. Midwifery. 2010;26:189–201. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2008.03.005.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

16. World Health Organization, 2015. Adolescent development. Available at: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/dev/en/ [Accessed 8 July, 2015]

17. Drummond DP, Mizan A, Brocx K, Wright B. Using peer education to increase sexual knowledge among West African refugees in Western Australia. Health Care for Women International. 2011;32:190–205. [PubMed]

18. Hoban E, Liamputtong P. Cambodian migrant women’s postpartum experiences in Victoria, Australia. Midwifery. 2013;29:772–8. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2012.06.021.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

19. Hanna B. Negotiating motherhood: the struggles of teenage mothers. J Adv Nurs. 2001;34(4):456–64. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01774.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

20. Australian Bureau of Statistics . Births, Australia, 2009. Canberra: ABS; 2009.

21. Collins PH. Black feminist thoughts: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman; 1990.

22. Crenshaw K. Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. Univ Chicago Legal Forum. 1989;140:139–67.

23. Drummond DP, Mizan A, Brocx K, Wright B. Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics and violence against women of colour. Standford Law Rev. 2001;43:1241–99.

24. Trahan A. Qualitative research and intersectionality. Crit Criminol. 2011;19:1–14. doi: 10.1007/s10612-010-9101-0.[Cross Ref]

25. Creswell JW. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. 3. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage; 2013.

26. Liamputtong P. Qualitative research methods. 4. Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 2013.

27. Carpenter C. Phenomenology and rehabilitation research. In: Liamputtong P, editor. Research methods in health: Foundations for evidence-based practice. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 2013. p. 123–40.

28. Roberts K, Taylor B. Nursing research process an Australian perspective 2nd Ed. Southbank, Victoria: Thomson; 2002.

29. Ochieng B. “You know what I mean:” the ethical and methodological dilemmas and challenges for black researchers interviewing black families. J Qual Health Res. 2010;20(2):1725–35. doi: 10.1177/1049732310381085.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

30. Pope C, Mays N. Observational methods. Chapter 6. In: Pope C, Mays N, editors. Qualitative research in health care. Oxford: Blackwell; 2006.

31. Ngum Chi Watts MC, Liamputtong P, Carolan M. Contraception knowledge and attitudes: truths and myths among African Australian teenage mothers in Greater Melbourne, Australia. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2014;23(15-16):2131-41. [PubMed]

32. Bunting L, McCauley C. Research review: teenage pregnancy and the motherhood – the contribution of support. Child Family Social Work. 2004;9(2):207–15. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2206.2004.00328.x.[Cross Ref]

33. McMichael C. Promoting sexual health amongst resettled youth with refugee backgrounds. Melbourne: La Trobe University; 2008.

34. Falcon MS. Intersectionality. Encyclopedia Gender Soci. 2009;1:467–9.

Teen pregnancy and resulting births pose many societal challenges, and as a result require the collective efforts of many to provide solutions. Teen pregnancy has been considered a "social ill" for centuries in the United States and has always challenged moral and ethical sensibilities. The economic costs of teens giving birth are significant, and there are many compelling reasons to reduce the teen pregnancy. Research shows that reducing the number of births to teens and increasing the age at which a women gives birth yields significant cost savings for the public sector. Efforts to reduce teen pregnancy are mainly focused on prevention and sex education is a large part of the effort. Twenty-first century sex education programs focus on two main strategies, they are: abstinence only education and abstinence plus education. Abstinence only teaches that abstaining from sexual activity is the only truly effective way to prevent unintended pregnancy. Abstinence plus education focuses on delaying the initiation of sexual activity and recommends the use of contraception if a teen is sexually active. The success of abstinence only education has been exaggerated according to many sociologists and researchers. Scientific research indicates that abstinence plus education is actually much more effective in preventing teen pregnancy. Solving the problem of teen pregnancy has largely been relegating to treating the symptoms of the problem and employing prevention strategies aimed at young women. Sociologists believe that reducing the rate of teen pregnancy will require developing more comprehensive and holistic solutions in the future. Researchers, teachers, parents and community leaders are recommending and developing programs that focus on the role of boys and young men in the teen pregnancy puzzle. Research indicates that involving boys and young men in "male only" sex education may help to significantly reduce the rate of teen pregnancy over the coming years. The effectiveness of approaching the teen pregnancy problem from holistic or system-wide view will be documented in future research.

Keywords Abstinence Only; Abstinence Plus; Comprehensive Sexuality Education; Non-Marital Births; Public Sector Costs; Punitive; Teen Childbearing

Teen Pregnancy


Teen pregnancy is largely regarded as a societal problem that is most effectively dealt with through prevention strategies. However, some researchers argue that the discrepancies between the realities of teen pregnancy and the strategies for its prevention hinder the issue from being adequately addressed on a holistic level (Kohili & Nyberg, 1995). Cultural and political attitudes toward sexuality may also hinder the formulation of a concerted effort toward confronting the problem of teen pregnancy. Instead, policy makers, educators, researchers, and parents have generally focused on preventing teen pregnancy itself rather than on addressing the societal influences that may encourage teen pregnancy. Variables such as the age at which a teen first engages in sexual intercourse and the use or non-use of contraception can all predict the likelihood of a teen becoming pregnant. However, both of these variables are in turn influenced by a number of societal indicators such as peer pressure, pro-social values, parent-child communication, and self esteem (Kohili & Nyberg, 1995).

Young, unwed women have been giving birth for centuries. The "objective conditions" around teen births have not changed significantly over time. However, changes in the language associated with the issue illustrate significant shifts in the subjective perception of "teen pregnancy" throughout history (Luker, 1997).

In the Colonial era, women who gave birth outside of wedlock were called "fallen women" and considered to be sinners. The children born out of wedlock were "bastards" or "illegitimate." The economic impact of these children and their mothers were a pressing social concern: without a husband's support, unwed mothers and their children might need to become wards of the state. During the Progressive era of the early 1900s a more compassionate attitude toward unwed women and their children evolved. Unplanned pregnancies were no longer considered a moral or economic problem, but rather "a societal problem, an index of what was wrong with society" (Luker, 1997, p. 20). A stigma has long been associated with giving birth out of wedlock, and the fear and shame that went along with bearing illegitimate children kept the number of unmarried births low until relatively recent decades. Today, many sociologists admit that the stigma is largely gone, and that its disappearance has had at least some relation to the increase in teen sexual activity and pregnancy. (Kohili & Nyberg, 1995)

The Economic Cost of Teen Pregnancy

Though teen pregnancy rates declined by 36 percent from 1990–2002 and by 33 percent among girls aged fifteen to nineteen from 1991–2004; as of 2012 the teen pregnancy rate in the United States is still the highest of all the industrialized nations. Children born to teens are very likely to grow up in single parent households, and poverty in households that are headed by single women is between four and five times more severe than in households headed by married couples (Haskins & Sawhill, 2007). According the Haskins & Sawhill, "reversing the trend toward single-parent families would have an immediate effect in reducing poverty rates. But perhaps more important, it would also have a long-term effect on children's growth and development" (p. 4).

The age of a woman when she has her first child has a significant impact on the public sector costs associated with the birth. The younger the mother is, the higher the net cost of the birth (Hoffman, 2006). A 1996 report Kids Having Kids and a later 2006 report By the Numbers: The Public Costs of Teen Childbearing both attempted to calculated the relative costs associated with births to teens. The author of the later report described his methodology, which was similar to that of the former report:

The cost estimates provided in this report are based on a very conservative research approach that only includes costs that can be confidently attributed to teen childbearing itself rather than to other traits or disadvantages that often accompany teen childbearing (such as poverty) (Hoffman, 2006, p. 3).

By the Numbers calculated the costs in two areas: costs associated with the mother and her partner and costs associated with the children of teen mothers. Public sector costs associated with teen mothers and partners are calculated primarily as loss of tax revenue due to lower lifetime earnings. Public sector costs associated with children of teens include publicly provided healthcare, foster care, and child welfare services. The more indirect costs incurred by children who are born to teens often show up as incarceration costs and lost tax revenue due to the children's lower earnings (Hoffman, 2006).

Sociologist's goals in reviewing these net costs associated with teen births is to "make apparent the economic value of preventing early pregnancy" (Hoffman, 2006, p. 3) Delaying the age of first birth saves significant money in the public sector because teens who have children frequently rely on social services for support and, over their lifetimes, pay lower taxes (Hoffman, 2006) The primary goal is to measure the costs that could be averted if today's mothers delay their first birth until their early 20s (Hoffman, 2006).

Teen pregnancy declined by about one-third between 1991 and 2009, consequently reducing the number of children in poverty; by 2013 the rate of teen pregnancy was still declining. Trends in teen sexual activity and contraceptive use suggest that a combination of existing policies and changes in the larger culture have produced reductions since the early 1990s (Haskins & Sawhill, 2007).

Between 2010 and 2011 there was an additional drop of 8 percent for babies born to mothers between the ages of fifteen and nineteen. Birth rates fell by 11 percent for mothers between the ages of fifteen and seventeen.

Sociologists are eager to identify programs and policies that successfully reduce the number of teen pregnancies. A great many programs focus on preventing teen pregnancy; however, this essay will not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of all of them. Instead, it will discuss research surrounding sex education, namely abstinence only education and abstinence plus education. The discussion surrounding sex education will focus not only on current research findings, but also on the veracity of the research that has produced different and often conflicting results. Finally, this essay will discuss programs that focus on the role of boys...

0 Replies to “Teenage Pregnancy Research Paper Titles For Child”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *