Tobias Mundry Dissertation Writing

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Einbrennsilikonisierung bei pharmazeutischen Glaspackmitteln - Analytische Studien eines Produktionsprozesses

Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I

Zur Langanzeige

Die Einbrennsilikonisierung wird schon lange verwendet, um spezielle Eigenschaften bei pharmazeutischen Glasbehältnissen zu erzielen. Üblicherweise werden Silikonöle verwendet um Gleitfilme auf den Oberflächen vorgefüllter Glasspritzen zu erzeugen oder die Glaswand zu hydrophobieren damit wäßrige Inhalte sauber ablaufen können. Weiterhin kann durch die hydrophobe Deaktivierung der Glaswände eine Reduktion der Adsorption von Wirk- und Hilfsstoffen sowie eine Erhöhung der hydrolytischen Resistenz erreicht werden. Wegen des parenteralen Verwendungszweckes werden meistens Gläser der Glasart 1 entsprechend dem europäischen Arzneibuch eingesetzt. Die Silikonölfilme (Trimethylsiloxy-endgeblockte Polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) werden aus verdünnter wäßriger Emulsion auf der inneren Behältnisoberfläche gespreitet und anschließend bei Temperaturen oberhalb von 300°C für ca. 10-30 min hitzebehandelt. Neben der Sterilisation und Entpyrogenisierung wird der Silikonfilm durch das Einbrennen verändert. In der Literatur wurde dieser Prozeß bisher als Hitzefixierung oder -härtung bezeichnet in der Annahme, daß das Silikonöl durch Glasbindung oder Quervernetzung immobilisiert wird. Es wurden weitere Effekte wie Verdampfung oder Zersetzungsreaktionen als Folge der Hitzebehandlung angenommen. Die Dissertation hatte daher zum Ziel diese Vorstellungen analytisch zu belegen. Die Eigenschaften einbrennsilikonisierter Gläser lassen sich durch einfache Experimente beschreiben. Durch organische Extraktion der Gläser (z.B. Toluol, Dichlormethan) läßt sich der überwiegende Silikonanteil (ca. 80%) wiederfinden. Nach erschöpfender Extraktion zeigt sich eine beständige Hydrophobie z.B. durch die Ausbildung hoher Randwinkel von Wasser oder das veränderte Ablaufverhalten von Flüssigkeiten in diesen Behältnissen festgestellt werden. Basierend auf diesen Beobachtungen wurde die Anwesenheit einer gebundenen neben einer löslichen Silikonölfraktion nach dem Einbrennen angenommen. Alle analytischen Studien wurden an dieser zwei Lagen Theorie orientiert und durchgeführt. Dazu wurden einige oberflächensensitive Techniken wie z.B. die kombinierte Röntgenphotoelektronen- und Augerelektronenspektroskopie (XPS/AES) und die Flugzeit-Sekundärionenmassenspektroskopie (TOF-SIMS) eingesetzt. Durch chemische Zustandsdiagramme und massenspektroskopische Strukturanalyse konnte die Ausbildung von Bindungen zwischen Glas und Silikon detektiert werden. Kontaktwinkelmessungen zeigten, daß das gebundene Silikon bis ca. 400°C thermostabil ist und oberhalb von 450°C pyrolysiert wird. Die extrahierbare Silikonfraktion wurde ebenfalls mit einigen analytischen Techniken im Vergleich mit den jeweiligen unbehandelten Ausgangsmaterialien untersucht. Chromatographische Studien mittels Größenausschluß- und Hochtemperatur-Gaschromatographie (SEC,GC) zeigten signifikante Unterschiede in der polymeren Zusammensetzung des PDMS. Die Molekulargewichtsmittel stiegen als Folge von Verlusten von niedermolekularen Siloxanen einer Größe zwischen 0-100 Siloxaneinheiten (SU) an. Diese Defizite können auf Verdampfungs- (0-50 SU) und Zersetzungsreaktionen (50-100 SU) zurückgeführt werden. Die Untersuchung des extrahierbaren eingebrannten Silikonöls mit der Fourier Transform Infrarot Spektroskopie (FTIR) zeigte keine strukturelle Veränderung der PDMS Moleküle, z.B. durch Hydrolyse, Oxidation oder Verzweigung an. Die Emulgatoren werden durch das Einbrennen zerstört. Dies wurde durch die 1H-Kernresonanz Spektroskopie (1H-NMR) nachgewiesen. Die Thermostabilität des PDMS wird durch katalytische Effekte der Emulsionshilfsstoffe und durch die Anwesenheit von Sauerstoff erniedrigt, wie aus thermogravimetrische Analysen (TGA) mit kommerziellen Silikonölen und Ölemulsionen modellhaft abgeleitet wurde. Um die Migration von Silikonölspuren in Arzneimittel in silikonisierten Glasbehältnissen zu bewerten wurde eine Atom Absorptions spektroskopische (AAS) Methode entwickelt und entsprechend den ICH-Richtlinien validiert (Bestimmungsgrenze in Liquida 10 mg/L). Die Schlußfolgerung aus den Analysen ist, daß nach der Einbrennsilikonisierung zwei differenzierbare Silikonfraktionen an der Glasoberfläche anwesend sind. Die kovalent gebundene Dünnschicht ist unlöslich und verliert ihren Ölcharakter, ist aber für die Hydrophobisierung ausreichend. In der löslichen Fraktion, werden die mittleren Molekulargewichte durch den Verlust von niedermolekularen Anteilen erhöht. Der Anteil dieser Schicht hängt von der eingesetzten Ausgangsmenge an Silikonöl ab. Durch die Entfernung der niedermolekularen Anteile und die Zerstörung der Emulgatoren können toxikologische Bedenken zurückgestellt werden.


Heat Curing Siliconization of Pharmaceutical Glass Containers The heat curing siliconization has long since been used to introduce special properties to pharmaceutical glass containers. Silicone oils are usually applied to the containers to form lubricating films on the inner surface of prefilled syringes or to gain hydrophobic container walls for clear draining aqueous solutions, e.g. in injection vials. Furthermore the deactivation of the glass wall reduces adsorption of hydrophilic drug compounds and increases the hydrolytic stability of the glass surface. Due to the parenteral targeting the glass containers are made from glass type 1 according to the European Pharmacopoeia. The silicone oil films (= trimethylsiloxy endcapped polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) are spread from diluted aqueous silicone oil emulsions on the inner surface and successively heat treated above 300°C for 10-30 minutes. Apart from sterilization and depyrogenation, the silicone layer is changed by the burning-in treatment. In literature the process has previously been designated as heat fixing or heat curing assuming that silicone oil is immobilized by bonding to the glass or branching. Further effects such as vaporization or degradation were suggested along with the heating. Proving these suggestions analytically was therefore the aim of the dissertation. The properties of siliconized glass containers can be characterized by simple experiments. Extraction of the glasses with suitable organic solvents (e.g. toluene, dichloromethane) recovers most of the silicone (approximately 80%) after a typical heat curing process. Still, after exhaustive solvent extraction there are persisting hydrophobic properties of the glasses evidenced by high contact angles of water and changed draining behaviour of fluids in the containers. From this observations it was assumed that a bound and a soluble silicone species is present after the heat curing siliconization. All analytical studies were based on the two-layer hypothesis and thus divided in two parts. Several surface analysis techniques were employed to detect and characterize the fixed silicone layer among them the combined X-ray photoelectron and augerelectron spectroscopy (XPS/AES) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS). The formation of new bonds between silicone and glass was evidenced by chemical state plots and mass spectroscopic structural analysis. Contact angle measurements showed that the bound silicone was thermostable up to 400°C and pyrolyzed at temperatures above 450°C. The extractable silicone was also studied with several analytical techniques in comparison with the respective uncured starting materials. Chromatographic studies using size exclusion (SEC) and high temperature gas chromatography (GC) revealed significant changes in the composition of the silicone polymer. The molecular weight averages increase because low molecular weight siloxanes (LMWS) with 0-100 dimethylsiloxane units are removed through the heat curing process. These deficits can be related to vaporization (molecules from 0-50 units) and degradation (molecules from 0-100 units) effects. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) investigation of the molecular structure of the extractable PDMS after heat treatment showed no chemical changes e.g. by hydrolysis, branching or oxidation. The emulsifiers are destroyed in the heating process which was proved by a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) study. The thermostability of the silicones is decreased by katalytic effects of auxiliary substances in the emulsions and the presence of oxygen. This was concluded from model thermogravimetric studies (TGA) with commercial medical grade silicone oils and emulsions. To evaluate migration of silicone traces to drug formulations in siliconized glass containers a trace analytical method by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) was developed and validated according to the ICH guidelines. In liquid formulations levels of 10µg/L can be properly quantified. It was concluded that two main species of silicone can be differentiated on the glass surface after heat curing siliconization. The bonded thin layer is insoluble and sufficient for hydrophobic deactivation. The oil properties are lost. The extractable fraction is altered by removal of LMWS which increases molecular weight and viscosity and determines the lubricating properties. Its amount depends on the used silicone mass. No toxicological concern has to be made about LMWS and emulsifiers in the drug product due to their removal in the curing step.


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